Petrified wood is formed when trees are buried by sediment and protected from decay because of oxygen and organisms.
This petrified wood is a special kind of fossilized remains of planted plants. Trees that completely transition into stone by the permineralization process.
All organic materials have been replaced with minerals (mostly silicates, such as quartz), while retaining the original structure of the parent network.
Furthermore, the soil-rich solid water flows through the sediment, replacing native plant material with silica, calcite, pyrite, or other inorganic materials such as opal.
The formation of fossil wood is in the lowlands with a tropical climate and covered by dense forests. Tropical storm-ravaged rivers sweep mud and other sediments to the lowlands. A very large tree with a diameter of 9 feet and a height of 200 meters live and die in this lowland. Falling trees and broken branches are often buried by river sediments. The nearest volcano erupted several times. These eruptions enveloped the area with volcanic ash with high silica content.
Rapid burial allows plant fragments to avoid destruction by oxygen and insects. The soluble ash is dissolved by ground water flowing through the sediment. Dissolved ashes serve as a source of silica that replaces crop residues, creating petrified wood. The trace amounts of iron, manganese and other minerals are included in silica and provide petrified wood with various colors.
This petrified wood can be found in sediment volcanoes and sedimentary rocks in many locations around the world. Sometimes it is found where volcanic activity includes plant matter with ash, mud or pyroclastic debris.
Various names are commonly used for petrified wood.
"Fossilized wood" is a general term for wood that has been stoned or preserved by other methods of fossilization. "Opalized wood" is petrified wood that has been replaced by opal, an amorphous silica form. "Agatized wood" is the wood that has been replaced by agate, a form of kalsedon or microcrystalline quartz. "Silicified wood" is wood that has been replaced by various forms of silica, including opal and agate.